Formal Education

Enrolment. The breakdown of participation rate by education level shows that enrollment is highest at the primary or elementary level (age 6-12) (Table 19: School Age Population and Enrollment Participation Rate). The table indicates a 91.5% enrollment rate for this level. Enrollment participation rate is 73.0% for the secondary level (age 13-16) and 60.6% for the tertiary level (age 17-21). This clearly presents the reality in most of the rural barangays, where majority of parents can not afford to send their children for higher education beyond elementary level. This is more noticeable in less accessible areas like Manalog, Tag-ilanao (Can-ayan), Balangbang and Paiwaig (Linabo) and San Roque (Apo Macote) where only Primary Schools exist. These areas happened to be dominantly inhabited by lumads. In terms of educational planning, these areas with low educational level of attainment should be given priority. One way is to give scholarship to students with potential for higher level of learning.

Enrollment figures for 2004 indicate that of the total school-age (6-21) population of 54,931 only 43,333 or 78.9% actually enrolled. Majority or 55.6% of the school-going population are in the Primary & Elementary level. About 26.1% are in the secondary level and about 18.3% in the tertiary level.

Completion Rate. Completion Rate of elementary public school students for SY 2004-2005 is 62.29%. Of the 4,662 students who enrolled in grade 1 in 1999, only 2,904 eventually graduated in 2005. The 1,758 students or 37.71% dropped out or transferred to other schools within the six-year period. The actual Grade 6 graduation rate is 95.6%. This means that out of the 3,037 students enrolled in grade 6 in August 2004, 2,904 actually graduated (Table 20: Year-End Performance Indicators, Government Elementary and Secondary Schools). There are many factors that affect the completion rate of students, some of these are inaccessibility of schools, poverty, and not appropriate system of teaching (i.e. number of hours and schedule in teaching, subjects/curriculum, and teaching methodology). Many lumad children stop to attending classes during the time of harvest in their farms (October-November), which coincides with the regular evaluation of formal schools. Other children stop during rainy season when the rivers they have to cross to get to school usually swell. Still other children find themselves lost and lacking in confidence in the midst of other school children who are relatively well-off than they are.

Teacher-Student Ratio. Year 2005 Data from the 3 District Offices on the number of teachers and enrolled students in all thegovernment schools in the city indicate a low student-teacher ratio; lower than the recommended ratio for private schools by the Department of Education (Table 21: Student-Teacher and Student-Classroom Ratios by District). Teacher-student ratio is 1:42 at the Primary level, 1:39 at the Elementary level and 1:41 average. The standard set by the Department of Education for private schools is about 1:50 in any grade level.

The computation of teacher need based on student-teacher ratio alone may not reflect actual needs. Actual needs cover the factor of teachers’ specialization. Teachers even at elementary level already have subject specialization (i.e. Home Economics, Science, Arts, English, etc.). These specialized teachers handle only one subject but they are overloaded in the number of sections or grade levels than they are actually teaching. This information is not reflected on reports that focus only on numbers. Thus, although ratios may mean adequate teachers, actual teaching load and teacher-subject distribution yield to each of teachers. In fact there are teachers handling more than one grade level, which they called combination classes. These usually happen in rural barangay ofprimary and elementary schools where there is lack of teachers and classrooms.

Available data from the DepEd for the year 2005 covers all the schools in the North and South Districts of Malaybalay including the East District, which were not made available during the first half of the planning period. (Table 22a: Report on Teacher Need Grade I-IV by District and Table 21b: Report on Teacher Need Grade V-VI by District). Based on the full data the teacher-student ratio in the primary level (Grade I – IV) is 1:42, and 1:39 in the Elementary level (Grade V-VI). These data reflect a specified number of teachers needed by Districts. For South District, there are 19 teachers needed using the HLURB Guidelines but only 7 are needed according to their report. North District needs 18 but should be needing 30 using HLURB guidelines. Similarly, the East District actually needs 17 but asking for only 5 teacher. To coordinate all the districts concerns, it is empirical to create a Malaybalay City Division Office.

Classroom-Student Ratio. The standard classroom-student ratio set by DepEd is 1:50. In Malaybalay, the ratio is 1:39 for theSouth District, 1:29 for East and 1:47 for the North District. Overall, classroom-student ratio is 1:36 (Table 24: Districts Report on Classroom Needs).

Based on HLURB Guidelines (1:40 Classroom-Student Ratio) and the projected enrollment for the primary level for the next five years (Table 23: Projected Enrollment for Primary Level) and current number of elementary level classrooms, 48 more classrooms will be needed for school year 2005-2006 and 111 by school year 2010-2011.

For the year 2005, data from the 3 District Offices indicate that classroom-student ratio for Grades I-VI is 1:36, much lower thanDepEd standard of 1:50 (Table 24: Districts’ Report on Classroom Needs). While this ratio alone may indicate that there is no need for additional classrooms, Districts data show that there are at least 47 more classrooms needed.

This is because, the analysis of classroom need based on student-classroom ratio alone is not sufficient to determine actual classroom needs. Figures on existing classrooms often include those classrooms that are being used for other purposes such as faculty room and library. Sometimes for ease of justification, request for library, laboratory and faculty rooms are also labeled as classrooms. According to DepEd, if projection of classroom need take this into consideration, the number of further classroom needed will be much higher than the used computation.

Vocational and Technical Education

Vocational and technical education courses are available in 4 poblacion schools (Table 25: Vocational/Technical Education).

Non-Formal Education

For the school year 1998-1999, there were two main programs of DECS under the Non-Formal Education, the Functional Literacy and the Livelihood Skills Development. The data shows that there were 16 barangays with functional literacy classes; 12 of these are in the rural areas and only 4 in the urban area. (Table 26: Non-Formal Education) Functional literacy students totaled to 455 of which 256 were males and 199 females. The highest number of participants, all male, are in the BCT (Impalambong) 403rd MNLF functional literacy class.

Aside from DepEd provided literacy classes, there are also church-based and non-government organizations that provide educational services to the lumads in the uplands. These organizations are providing alternative education to the lumads in the sense that formal DECS curriculum and other formal set up are not followed. What is given importance in the subject matters taught are the communities’ culture, health, environment, and livelihood. Schedules of classes are structured in such a way as to accommodate farm and other community activities. Most importantly, the alternative education program tries to build on what the communities already have, so students are confident that they already knew most of the things being taught to them. After three or four years that the students spent with the alternative literacy classes, they are given opportunity to proceed to higher formal education by availing the Public Education Placement Test (PEPT) given by DepEd. After the test, a student may be placed to a grade level that suits his/her age and capacity without necessarily passing through the first grade. Like a case in Bendum, where five literacy students took the test, passed, and were admitted to 1st year high school level.

For the livelihood skills development, trainings include dressmaking, manicure, culinary, gardening and tailoring. Three of the 5 trainings were conducted in the urban barangays. There were 128 total beneficiaries in these trainings, 12 are males and 116 are females.

The DepEd report on non-formal education for school year 1999-2000, enumerates the programs of non-formal education and some of the areas where they are given. However, there is no data on the number of participants or beneficiaries. Non-formal education programs include, (a) Special Education/Training for deaf; functional literacy cum livelihood for on probation, parole and pardon clientele; arabic literacy class for Maranaos; and open skills training for commercial arts, manicure/pedicure, dressmaking, tailoring, culinary arts and umbrella repair, (b) New Functional Literacy Classes in barangays, Ronquillo, Belyca Farm 2, Sta. Ana, Magsaysay, Kubayan, Aglayan, Laguitas, and Barangay 1. While old literacy classes continued in barangays Dalwangan, Baganao, Manalog, Kibalabag, Candi-isan, Mabuhay, Mapayag, Imbayao, and Barangay 9,

Schools Inventory

Data on existing schools and facilities are not complete, but they are indicative of the overall picture in the city. Within the city there are 20 kindergarten schools, of these, 17 are privately owned and are distributed in the urban and urbanizing areas of Malaybalay. (Table 27D: Kinder Schools Inventory). There are 4 kinder schools in the rural areas. For Primary/Elementary level, there are 63 schools, Only 4 of these are private. The majority or 59 schools are public. Only 10 of these elementary schools are within the urban center, the remaining 53 are distributed throughout the rural areas. (Table 27A: South District School Inventory) (Table 27B: East District School Inventory) (Table 27C: North District School Inventory) Almost each barangay has at least one elementary. Secondary schools total to 18 and 6 of them are within Malaybalay Poblacion, of which 3 are private schools. Rural barangays with private secondary schools include Linabo, Sinanglanan and Zamboanguita. Kalasungay, Bangcud, San Martin, Managok, Silae, Aglayan, San Jose and Can-ayan have public high schools. There are only 4 tertiary schools and all are found within the urban center of Malaybalay. Only one of these tertiary schools is public.

Day Care Service

The Day Care Service provides supplemental parental care to children between 3 and 5 years old. There are 106 day care centers in Malaybalay serving a total of 3,059 children. The day care workers allowance per month ranges from 1,500 to 3,500 pesos depending on their number of years in service and educational attainment. All of the day care workers are hired and funded by the city government (Table 28: Number of Daycare Centers by Barangay and Sex). The day care centers are often availed of by parents who are unable or incapable of caring for their children and by working parents. The purpose of day care service is to help children who lack opportunity for intellectual and social stimulation. These are the children who lack parental care at home, who are withdrawn or handicapped and can be helped by group experiences; and those who are malnourished.

Day care services are only in the barangay centers, leaving the lumad communities near and within the forests still unserved. It is doubtful if this kind of day care service set up is suitable to the lumads. A different program catering to the specific needs of lumad children should also be considered.

School Projects

Projects outlined by each District for 2005 are focused on Construction & Maintenance (Table 29: School Projects by District) such as classrooms, stages and gyms amounting to almost P8.0 million. Available information does not indicate non-infrastructure education programs and targets for improving literacy such as access to textbooks and educational materials, computerization and similar activities that will improve the quality of education.


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